Art as a Primary Source: Ancient Greek Pottery


Primary sources are firsthand accounts or direct evidence of an event or period under study.  These types of sources include, but are not limited to letters, interviews, photographs, and cultural artifacts such as coins, everyday objects, and works of art.

With studying these original materials, students and researchers have the opportunity to learn about what was important to the people who lived at that time, discover what life was like through the lens of these objects, and consider ways these sources connect to our lives in the twenty-first century.

In the sections below are resources for you to explore with your students. The materials focus on three ancient Greek vessels from the Ackland’s collection and how to explore these works of art as a primary resource. Although most content may be appropriate for middle school and above, the materials can be modified per grade level.

Vessel (Neck Amphora) with Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, c. 540-530

Learn About the Art

Watch the video below and learn about three different types of Greek vessels in the Ackland’s collection. Discover the importance of the object’s form, function, and painted decoration.

View these three objects in the Ackland’s online collection database:

Column-Krater, with Battle, Procession

Neck-Amphora, with Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, Departure Scene

Kylix, Cup, with Reclining Drinker, Youths


Making Connections

After watching the video above, click the buttons below to engage in writing and drawing experiences that extend your art experience.  All materials are printable and can be done at school or at home.

Analyzing an object

Comparing Greek Vessels

Writing an Object’s Story

Artistic Problem Solving

Creating a Story using Images and Patterns


Make a Coil Pot

Watch the video below and be inspired to make your own clay pot!  Create your clay pot with either Crayola’s Model Magic air-drying clay or make (and bake) your own salt dough clay.

Make a Coil Pot with Salt Dough Clay PDF

Questions to consider:

  • After creating your own coil pot, did you notice or wonder anything new about the ancient Greek pots (i.e. how the pots were made or the way the clay feels before it is hard)? If yes, share your answers and questions with a classmate or an adult.
  • Compare the dimensions of the Ackland’s krater, amphora, or kylix with your coil pot. What are the differences?  Using the dimensions of one the Greek vessels, find something nearby that is as big as the pot and (with permission) lift it to see how heavy it is. How does this compare to your coil pot?
  • Consider the painted surface of an ancient Greek pot and imagine touching it with your fingers – what do you think the texture be like? Compare this to your coil pot. What are the similarities and differences?

Resources for Students

Find Art Primary Sources

What are you researching?  What type of object(s) do you think might help you learn more about the people and events of the past? Museums are home to art objects of all kinds, ancient to contemporary, which can be used as primary sources. Visit museum websites to find images and information about artworks.

Search for objects using museum online collections, which usually  allow to you filter your results by type of object, such as painting or photograph, by artist, or by the date in which the object was created. View the Ackland’s collection database here.


Learn More

To help answer any questions you still have about the artwork, use books, articles, and credible web resources for your research.

The following are a selection of key web resources:

Also, consider visiting your local library to access print materials.


Cite Your Sources

When using primary resources in your research, it is important to give credit to your sources as you would a secondary source, such as a book or article. Use the following resources to learn how to accurately cite your primary sources:

Resources for Teachers

Using Primary Sources – Library of Congress (LOC)

The Library of Congress website provides tools to help teachers effectively use primary sources. The “Using Primary Sources” section contains Primary Source Sets, with source material organized by key topics, and teacher guides to assist with analyzing specific types of primary sources (see Analyzing Photographs and Prints).

Also consider viewing “Teaching with the Library of Congress”, a blog from the Library of Congress for teachers to discover and discuss effective techniques for using the LOC’s primary sources in the classroom:


Engaging Students with Primary Sources – Smithsonian National Museum of American History

Reference guide for teachers with practical examples of how to use primary sources in the classroom. Includes strengths and limitations, tips, and activities for documents, photographs, oral histories and objects. Also includes a bibliography and websites featuring primary source materials.


DocsTeach – National Archives

An online tool for teaching with documents, from the National Archives, providing access to thousands of primary sources, ranging in document type and covering a variety of historical topics. Includes ready-made activities to engage students in analyzing primary sources. With a free account, you can save and share source materials and activities, and copy or modify activities to fit your needs.


North Carolina Essential Standards: English Language Arts

W.6.2 – W.8.2   Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

W.6.3 – W.8.3   Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

SL.6.2 – SL.8.2 Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.


North Carolina Essential Standards: Social Studies

6.H.1.3 – 7.H.1.3 Use primary and secondary sources to interpret various historical perspectives.

6.C.1.1 Analyze how cultural expressions reflected the values of civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., oral traditions, art, dance, music, literature, and architecture).

7.C.1.2 Explain how cultural expressions (e.g. art, literature, architecture and music) influence modern society.


North Carolina Essential Standards: Visual Art

6.V.1 – 8.V.1 Use the language of visual arts to communicate effectively.

6.V.2 – 8.V.2  Apply creative and critical thinking skills to artistic expression.

6.CX.1.2 – 8.CX.1.2 Analyze art from various historical periods in terms of style, subject matter, and movements.

6.CX.2.2 – 8.CX.2.2 Understand the connections between art and other disciplines.

Art image credit:

Attributed to Bucci Painter, Greek, Attic, 6th century BCE, Neck-Amphora, with Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, Departure Scene, c. 540-530 BCE, terracotta, black-figure ware, 15 15/16 x 11 7/16 in. (40.5 x 29.1 cm). Ackland Fund, 88.15.